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Saying maths 2 - Mainly numbers

Numbers: general remarks

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Numbers: elementary calculations

= The equals sign
x=3 ;  x≠3 x equals three / x is equal to three  ;  x (is) not equal to three
x≡y x is equivalent to (or identical with) y
x>y  ; x≥y x is greater than y  ;  x is greater than or equal to y
x<y  ;  x≤y x is less than y  ;  x is less than or equal to y
x<a<y a is greater than x and less than y / a is between x and y  / x is less than  a and less than y
x≤a≤y a is greater than or equal to x and less than or equal to y / a is between x and y  -pause- bounds included / x is less than or equal to a and less than or equal to y
<< ; >> ; <<< ; >>> much less than ; much greater than ; very much less than ; very much greater than (The last two are not frequently used, but they are in the set of Unicode characters).
a+b=s (addition) a and b are the addends, s is the sum, a and b are also the items of the addition.
a+b=s a plus b is (/ equals / is equal to) s
a and b is (/ equals  / is equal to) s
s is the sum of a and b
a-b=d
(subtraction or difference)
a is the minuend, b is the subtrahend, d is the remainder or the difference
a-b=d a minus b is (/ equals / is equal to) d
a take away b is (/ equals / is equal to) d
d is the difference between a and b
a±b a plus or minus b
a×b=p, or a·b=p, or simply ab=p
(multiplication)
a and b are the factors or the multipliers, p is the product
a×b=p, or a·b=p, or simply ab=p a times b is (/ equals / is equal to) p
a multiplied by b is (/ equals / is equal to) p
a by b is (/ equals / is equal to) p
a b is (/ equals / is equal to) p
p is the product of a and b
a : b = q, or a / b = q (division) a is the dividend, b is the divisor, q is the quotient or the ratio
a:b=q, or a/b=q a divided by b is (/ equals / is equal to) q
q is the quotient of the division of a by b
verbs concerning operations to sum, to subtract / to deduct, to multiply, to divide
img (fraction) a is the numerator, b is the denominator (the outcome is always called the quotient, as in the division)
img a fraction can be said a divided by b (as a normal division ), or a over b. Cardinal numbers for the numerator and ordinal numbers for the denominator are also used (as in Italian): img is a third, img is two thirds. Special cases are img (a/one half), img (a/one quarter), img (three halves), img (three quarters), and similar. The special notation sometimes used for improper fractions, as img, is said three and a half.

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Numbers: advanced calculations

|x| or abs(x) The absolute value of x
ab a is the base, b is the index or the exponent
x2 x squared / x (raised) to the power two
x3 x cubed / x (raised) to the power three
x4 x to the fourth / x (raised) to the power four
xn x to the nth / x (raised) to the power n
x-n x to the minus n / x (raised) to the power minus n
img root x / square root x / square root of x
img cube root x / cube root of x
img fourth root x / fourth root of x
img nth root x / nth root of x
img nth root  -pause- x cubed or nth root   -pause- of x cubed
img x hat
img x bar
img x tilde
img x dot
img x dot dot / x double dot
n! n factorial / factorial n
img n choose p
xi x i / x subscript i / x suffix i / x sub i
xi (not a power!) x index i / sometimes x i if no misunderstanding with xi can occur / x superscript i
(x+y)3  ;  (x+y)n x plus y all cubed  ; x+y all to the nth
x3+y3 x cubed plus y cubed
a1 + a2 + ... +an a one plus a two and so on up to a (sub) n
a1 × a2 × ... ×an a one times a two and so on up to a (sub) n
img the summation symbol
img the sum as i runs from zero to n of the x i / the sum from i equals zero to n of the x i
img the sum  -pause- as i runs from one to n  -pause- of the quantity n over 3  -pause- plus the quantity 2 over n  -pause- all squared (but probably nobody will understand what you mean if he can't read the blackboard or the transparency!!)
img parenthesis  -pl. parentheses / round brackets
img brackets / square brackets
img braces / curly brackets
π pi

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Useful expressions

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first published on february 08 2003 - last updated on september 01 2003